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Teaching your child to read

Phase 2 introduces simple letter-sound correspondences. As each set of letters is introduced, children are encouraged to use their new knowledge to sound out and blend words. For example, they will learn to blend the sounds s–a–t to make the word sat.

Set 1:
s, atp

at, a, sat, pat, tap, sap, as

Set 2:
i – it, is, sit, pit, tip
n – an, in, nip, pan, nap
m – am, man, mat, map, Tim
d – dad, and, sad, dim, Sid

Set 3:
g – tag, gag, sag, gas, pig
o – got, on, not, top, dog
c – can, cot, cop, cap, cod
k – kid, kit, Kim, Ken

Set 4:
ck – kick, sack, dock, sick, pocket
e – get, pet, ten, net, pen
u – up, mum, run, mug, cup
r – rip, ram, rat, rocket, carrot

Set 5:
h – had, him, his, hot, hut
b – but, big, back, bed, bus
fff – of, if, off, fit, fog, puff
l, ll – let, leg, lot, bell, doll
ss – less, hiss, mass, mess, boss

Phase 2 tricky words:
the, to, no, go, I, into

children books.jpg

Examples of the Phase 2 phonics programme

Phase 2 Phonics Letters and Sounds aim to develop the following skills:

  • Knowledge and understanding of at least 19 letters

  • Practising letter recognition for reading and recall for spelling

  • Practising oral blending and segmentation

  • Practising blending for reading VC and CVC words

  • VC and CVC words for spelling

  • Practising high-frequency common words

  • Exposure to two-syllable words for reading

The 19 letters mentioned above are to be taught in 5 sets, with a set being taught each week. The sets are as follows:

 Set 1        s    a    t    p

  Set 2          n    m    d

Set 3         g   o    c   k

Set 4          ck   e   u    r

       Set 5      h  b   f, ff    l, ll    ss

Phase 2 Phonics Educational Video

Building Sentences

Phase 3

In Phase 3, children build on the letter-sound correspondences learned in Phase 2. They learn consonant digraphs (sounds made up of two letters together such as ‘ch’ or ‘ll’) and long vowel sounds (such as ‘igh’ or ‘ai’).

Set 6:
j – jet, jam, jog, Jan
v – van, vet, velvet
– wig, will, web
x – fox, box, six

Set 7:
y – yes, yet, yell
z – zip, zig-zag
zz – buzz, jazz
qu – quit, quick, liquid

Consonant digraphs:
ch – chip, chat, rich
sh – shop, shed, fish
th – thin, moth, that
ng – ring, thing, song

Vowel digraphs and trigraphs:
ai – rain, tail, aim
ee – bee, leek, see
igh – high, sigh, might
oa – boat, toad, foal
oo (long)– boot, food, moon
oo (short)– book, wood, foot
ar – park, art, car
or – for, torn, fork
ur – hurt, fur, surf
ow – cow, owl, town
oi – coin, boil, oil
ear – dear, shear, year
air – fair, pair, hair
ure – sure, pure, manure
er – dinner, summer, letter

Phase 3 tricky words:
he, she, we, me, be, was, you, they, all, are, my, her

En clase

Examples of the Phase 3 phonics programme


Phase 3 Letters and Sounds activities are broken into broad groups:

  • Teaching Letter Names

  • Introducing and Teaching Two-Letter and Three-Letter GPCs (- the relationship. between sounds and the letters which represent those sounds; also. known as 'letter-sound correspondences').  For example “sh” is a phoneme sound, but it's made up of two letters, meaning it's also a grapheme due to the breaking down of that sound into letters. More examples are: 1 letter - p, c, k. 2 letters - sh, oi, ow, ah.

  • Practising Grapheme Recognition for Reading and Spelling

  • Practising Blending for Reading

  • Practising Segmentation for Spelling

  • Teaching and Practising High Frequency Words

  • Teaching, Reading and Spelling Two-Syllable Words

  • Practising Reading and Writing Captions and Sentences

The letters learned in sets 6 and 7 are as follows:

Set 6         Set 7

j                     y

v                    z

w                  zz



The graphemes encountered are shown below:

Grapheme                 Example

ch                               chop

ar                                arm

sh                               ship

or                               for

th                               thick/there

ur                               hurt

ng                              sing

ow                             now

ai                               rain

oi                              coin

ee                             sheep

ear                           near

igh                           fight

air                            hair

oa                            boat

ure                           pure

oo                            look

er                            digger


Children will consolidate their knowledge during this phase and they will learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants (for example, trap, strong, milk and crept).

Children will also learn about consonant clusters: two consonants located together in a word, such tr, cr, st, lk, pl.

A consonant cluster is when two consonants are positioned together. They can appear at the start of a word, for example:

st in stay
fr in friend
cr in croak

Or at the end of a word:

sk in task
st in fast
nt in went
nd in sound

This is not to be confused with a consonant digraph, where the two letters make one sound. In a consonant cluster, you can hear the two sounds as you say the consonants.


CVCC and CCVC Words

'st' as in toast

'pl' as in plum

'sp' as in spoon

Tricky words

During this phase, the children will also be exposed to tricky words; words that cannot be sounded out.

Said   so   do   have   like   some   come

 were   there   little   one   when   out   what

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